# Cartesian coordinates/Related Articles

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*See also changes related to Cartesian coordinates, or pages that link to Cartesian coordinates or to this page or whose text contains "Cartesian coordinates".*

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- Affine space [r]: Collection of points, none of which is special; an
*n*-dimensional vector belongs to any pair of points.^{[e]} - Curl [r]: A vector operator that describes the rotation of a vector field.
^{[e]} - Dirac delta function [r]: Sharply peaked function, generalization of the Kronecker delta; a distribution that maps a regular function onto a single function value.
^{[e]} - Euler angles [r]: three rotation angles that describe any rotation of a 3-dimensional object.
^{[e]} - Jacobian [r]: Determinant of the matrix whose ith row lists all the first-order partial derivatives of the function ƒi(x1, x2, …, xn).
^{[e]} - Line (geometry) [r]: (or
**straight line**) In elementary geometry, a maximal infinite curve providing the shortest connection between any two of its points.^{[e]} - Linear algebra [r]: Branch of mathematics that deals with the theory of systems of linear equations, matrices, vector spaces, determinants, and linear transformations.
^{[e]} - Momentum [r]: mass of a particle times its velocity (a vector).
^{[e]} - Multipole expansion of electric field [r]: an expansion in terms of powers of 1/
*R*of an electric potential outside a charge distribution;*R*is the distance of a point outside to a point inside the charge distribution.^{[e]} - Plane (geometry) [r]: In elementary geometry, a flat surface that entirely contains all straight lines passing through two of its points.
^{[e]} - Point (geometry) [r]: An object that has a position but no length, breadth or depth.
^{[e]} - Polar coordinates [r]: Two numbers—a distance and an angle—that specify the position of a point on a plane.
^{[e]} - Polarizability [r]: The ease by which a charge-distribution polarizes; describes the amount of charge separation caused by an electric field.
^{[e]} - Relative permittivity [r]: A factor describing the polarizability of a material or medium as a proportionality between an electric displacement and an electric field in a dielectric.
^{[e]} - René Descartes [r]: French 17th-century philosopher, mathematician and scientist, author of the
*Discourse on Method*.^{[e]} - Right-hand rule [r]: Rule for the direction of the vector describing a cross product, a torque, or an angular momentum.
^{[e]} - Rotation matrix [r]: a 3×3 proper (unit determinant) orthogonal (orthonormal rows and columns) matrix
^{[e]} - Sine [r]: In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side opposite an acute angle (less than 90 degrees) and the length of the hypotenuse.
^{[e]} - Spherical harmonics [r]: A series of harmonic basis functions that can be used to describe the boundary of objects with spherical topology.
^{[e]} - Spherical polar coordinates [r]: Angular coordinates on a sphere: longitude angle φ, colatitude angle θ
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