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Biochemistry is the study of the chemicals and chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biological compounds.[1][2]


For more information, see: Macromolecules.

Nucleic acid


For more information, see: Protein.



For more information, see: Lipid.


For more information, see: Metabolism.



For more information, see: Glycolysis.

Krebs cycle

For more information, see: Citric acid cycle.


Urea cycle

For more information, see: Urea cycle.

Signal transduction

For more information, see: Signal transduction.

Signal transduction is the "intercellular or intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway".[3][4]

Intercellular primary messenger

Examples of primary messengers include hormones and neurotransmitters.


For more information, see: Hormone.


For more information, see: Neurotransmitter.

Cell surface receptor

For more information, see: Cell surface receptor.

Ion channel

For more information, see: Ion channel.

Second messenger system

For more information, see: Second messenger system.

Examples of second messenger systems include the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system

Nobel laureates contributing to Biochemistry


  1. Stryer, Lubert; Berg, Jeremy Mark; Tymoczko, John L. (2002). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3051-0. 
  2. Robert K. Murray, Daryl K. Granner, Victor W. Rodwell (2006). Harper’s illustrated biochemistry, 27th. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill. LCC QP514 .R4.  LCCN 2003-029
  3. Anonymous (2024), Signal transduction (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. Stryer, Lubert; Berg, Jeremy Mark; Tymoczko, John L. (2002). “15. Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism”, Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3051-0.