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A 3:1 mixture of dextro-amphetamine to levo-amphetamine salts and is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The brand Adderall® is marketed by Shire Pharmaceuticals.

Off-label indications include depression, especially in older adults who have not responded to second-generation and first-generation antidepressants.

Adderall also can be considered a nootropic, a drug that improves mental functioning and alertness.


In the United States of America, the mixture was approved with a New Drug Application (NDA) by the FDA in 1960.[1] The extended release version was approved in 2001.[2] A generic version (not extended release) was approved with a Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in 2002.[3]


The time to reach maximum plasma concentration is:[4]

  • Adderall XR® is about 7 hours
  • Addreall 3 hours

Adderall XR 20 mg one daily has similar pharmacokinetics to Adderall(immediate-release) 10 mg twice dialy administered 4 hours apart. [4]

The mean elimination half-life in adults for d-amphetamine is 10 hours and for the l-amphetamine is 13 hours[4]

Drug abuse and control

As an amphetamine, although somewhat less likely to be abused than those that reach a peak level more quickly, it is in the most tightly regulated group of prescription drugs. In the U.S., that is Schedule II of the Drug Enforcement Administration.

External links

The most up-to-date information about Adderall and other drugs can be found at the following sites.


  1. Drugs@FDA. U S Food and Drug Administration
  2. Drugs@FDA. U S Food and Drug Administration
  3. Drugs@FDA. U S Food and Drug Administration
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Adderall XR (Dextroamphetamine Sulfate, Dextroamphetamine Saccharate, Amphetamine Sulfate and Amphetamine Aspartate) capsule, extended release [Shire US Inc.]