Implementation of team learning
The four essential principles of team-based learning are:
- Teams must be properly formed and managed. The students should be well mixed.
- Students must be made accountable for their individual and group work
- Team assignments must promote both learning and team development
- Students must have frequent and timely feedback.
Regarding team assignments, there are 4 S's:
- Significant Problem. Select a relevant, significant problem.
- Same Problem. Teams work on the same problem, case or question.
- Specific Choice. Teams are required to make a specific choice.
- Simultaneous Report. Teams report their choice simultaneously.
Guidelines are available for how to report studies of team-based learning.
Team-based learning improved medical students' performance on examination questions; this was especially true for students in the lower class percentiles.
Several instruments, the STROBE, the Classroom Engagement Survey (CES - 8 or 9 items), and the Team Performance Scale (TPS - 18 items). have been validated for measuring effectiveness. The CES has two subscales, learner’s participation (LP - 4 or 5 items) and learner enjoyment of class(EC - 3 items), which may be reported as means or totals of items within the subscales.
Areas of application
Minimally structured teams
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- Michaelsen, Larry K.; Dean X. Parmelee, Kathryn K. McMahon, Ruth E. Levine, Diane M. Billings (2007-11). Team-Based Learning for Health Professions Education: A Guide to Using Small Groups for Improving Learning, 1. Stylus Publishing. ISBN 157922248X.
- Fink, L. Dee; Michaelsen, Larry K.; Knight, Arletta Bauman (2002). Team-based learning: a transformative use of small groups. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-89789-863-X.
- Michaelsen, LK. Getting Started with Team-based Learning
- Sibley, J. Team-based Learning: alternative to lecturing in large class settings.
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