In the 1960s claims were made that scientific studies had confirmed an hither-to unknown phase of water, called polywater. Poly water was said to be a kind or ordered liquid water, formed in very thin quartz capillary tubes. Poly water was said to have a much lower freezing point than regular water, a much higher boiling point, and to be extremely viscous.
Research grants requests were written. Studies were conducted. In the end it turned out that the anomalous properties were due to impurities in the tubes -- not due to the discovery of a new form of liquid water.
- Phil Attard. What is polywater?, University of Sydney. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
- William J. McKinney (1991). Discussion: Polywater and Experimental Realism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
- J. Van Brakel. Discussion: Polywater and Experimental Realism, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1994, pp. 775-784. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
- POLYWATER AND THE ROLE OF SKEPTICISM, 1995. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
- Henry H. Bauer. ‘Pathological Science’ is not Scientific Misconduct (nor is it pathological), International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry, 2002, pp. 5-20. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.