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Mithila (Sanskrit: मिथिला, mithilā) was an ancient kingdom that ruled over parts of the Gangetic plains, on the border of modern India and Nepal. The main reference to its existence is the Hindu epic Ramayana, which claims that Rama's wife Sita was the daughter of Janaka, who ruled Mithila from Janakpur.

Mithila art, also known as Madhubani art, is also the name of a style of Hindu art created in the Mithila area. Its origins are ritual geometric and symbolic wall decorations created by Hindu women before their marriage. Later, Mithila paintings were also done on paper and sold as craft or artwork, extending their subject matter to depiction of Hindu deities and everyday events.