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For the philosophical position of metaphysical libertarianism, see Free will.

Libertarianism is a political ideology that regards individual freedom as having the highest value in society. In some respects it can be seen as a continuation of classical liberalism. The mainstream of liberal thought came to the conclusion, over the course of the nineteenth century, that a state must pursue interventionist policies in order to bring about some semblance of social justice. Libertarians reject this view, emphasizing individual freedom and free markets as the best way of benefiting all individuals. These attitudes are not confined to economics, libertarians generally supporting legalization of drugs, for example.