Khost Province is one of the provinces on Afghanistan's border with Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA), and thus an active area for insurgents crossing between the countries. It was once part of Greater Paktika, along with Paktia and Paktika Provinces. Its capital is Khost city. They are also transliterated as Khowst.
It is mountainous; the mountains are heavily forested and give good cover.
The security situation remains difficult. Both the Harqqani network and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin are active. The 1st Brigade of the Afghan National Army's 203rd Corps is in Khost, and the province is in the International Security Assistance Force Eastern Regional Command.