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Integrity, in information security, refers to the assurance that data retrieved from an information system has the same meaning as when it was entered. In U.S. law, it refers to the "Guarding against improper information modification or destruction, and includes ensuring information non-repudiation and authenticity."[1]

Two recognized subsets are:

  • Atomic integrity, or the assurance that an individual record is unchanged
  • Sequential integrity, or the assurance that records of a file are not duplicated, deleted, or out of sequence

Nonrepudiation is an aspect of the processing of information. Sender nonrepudiation means that one cannot deny creating a transaction, and can prove having done so, while receiver nonrepudiation means one cannot deny receiving it.


  1. 44 USC 3542