# Complement (linear algebra)  Main Article Discussion Related Articles  [?] Bibliography  [?] External Links  [?] Citable Version  [?] This editable Main Article is under development and subject to a disclaimer. [edit intro]

In linear algebra, a complement to a subspace of a vector space is another subspace which forms an internal direct sum. Two such spaces are mutually complementary.

Formally, if U is a subspace of V, then W is a complement of U if and only if V is the direct sum of U and W, $V=U\oplus W$ , that is:

$V=U+W;\,$ $U\cap W=\{0\}.\,$ Equivalently, every element of V can be expressed uniquely as a sum of an element of U and an element of W. The complementarity relation is symmetric, that is, if W is a complement of U then U is also a complement of W.

If V is finite-dimensional then for complementary subspaces U, W we have

$\dim V=\dim U+\dim W.\,$ In general a subspace does not have a unique complement (although the zero subspace and V itself are the unique complements each of the other). However, if V is in addition an inner product space, then there is a unique orthogonal complement

$U^{\perp }=\{v\in V:(v,u)=0{\mbox{ for all }}u\in U\}.\,$ 