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Armenia is a country in the Caucasus, bordered by Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east and the Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave to the south, and to the west by Iran and Turkey. Formerly part of the Soviet Union, Armenia declared independence in 1991, with Independence Day celebrated yearly on September 21. Following the breakup of the USSR and subsequent independence Armenia agreed to economic cooperation with many of the former Soviet Republics and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Armenia is dominated by mountainous terrain, with greater than 90% of the country lying 900m or more above sea level, rising to the highest peak, Mount Aragats, at just over 4,000m. The country is home to around 3 million people, mostly Armenian with a minority of Kurds, Russians and Yazidis.

Suspicion over election results has caused unrest in Armenia repeatedly since it's independence, and trade sanctions imposed by neighbouring countries in response to hostilities between Armenia and Azerbaijan have contributed to unemployment and poverty levels within the country.

Armenia was the first country in the world to adopt Christianity as a state religion, in 301 CE. There are an estimated 7 million followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church, including 4 million outside of the country, social conditions having caused an "Armenian diaspora" of migrants leaving the region. The worldwide Armenian population is estimated at more than 10 million.