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A list of key readings about Animal.
Please sort and annotate in a user-friendly manner. For formatting, consider using automated reference wikification.


  • Adouette A et al.(2000) The new animal phylogeny: Reliability and implications PNAS 97:4453-4456 ("A deep reorganization of the metazoan phylogenetic tree is presently taking place as a result of the input of molecular data.")
  • Dunn CW et al. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452745-9. PMID 18322464 ("Long-held ideas regarding the evolutionary relationships among animals have recently been upended by sometimes controversial hypotheses based largely on insights from molecular data")
  • DeSalle R, Schierwater B (2008) An even "newer" animal phylogeny. Bioessays 30:1043-7. PMID 18937347
  • Love, G.D.; E. Grosjean & C. Stalvies et al. (2009), "Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period", Nature 457 (7230): 718–721, DOI:10.1038/nature07673 [e]


  • Paris M, Laudet V (2008)The history of a developmental stage: metamorphosis in chordates. Genesis 46:657-72. PMID 18932261 ("Metamorphosis displays a striking diversity in chordates...In anuran amphibians, the tadpole loses its tail, develops limbs, and undergoes profound changes at the behavioral, physiological, biochemical, and ecological levels. In ascidian tunicates, the tail is lost and the head tissues are drastically remodeled into the adult animal, whereas in amphioxus, the highly asymmetric larva transforms into a relatively symmetric adult. This wide diversity has led to the proposal that metamorphosis evolved several times independently in the different chordate lineages during evolution.")
  • Hewes RS (2008) The buzz on fly neuronal remodeling. Trends Endocrinol Metab 19:317-23. PMID 18805704 ("During metamorphosis in insects, steroid hormones (the ecdysteroids) and terpenoid hormones (the juvenile hormones) regulate extensive remodeling of the nervous system. These changes retool the nervous system for new behavioral and physiological functions that are required for the adult stage of the life cycle.")


  • Ings TC et al. (2009) Ecological networks--beyond food webs. J Anim Ecol 78(1):253-69. PMID 19120606 ("A fundamental goal of ecological network research is to understand how the complexity observed in nature can persist and how this affects ecosystem functioning. This is essential for us to be able to predict, and eventually mitigate, the consequences of increasing environmental perturbations such as habitat loss, climate change, and invasions of exotic species.")
  • Benton MJ (2009) The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science 323:728-32. PMID 19197051 ("Evolution may be dominated by biotic factors, as in the Red Queen model, or abiotic factors, as in the Court Jester model, or a mixture of both. The two models appear to operate predominantly over different geographic and temporal scales: Competition, predation, and other biotic factors shape ecosystems locally and over short time spans, but extrinsic factors such as climate and oceanographic and tectonic events shape larger-scale patterns regionally and globally, and through thousands and millions of years. Paleobiological studies suggest that species diversity is driven largely by abiotic factors such as climate, landscape, or food supply, and comparative phylogenetic approaches offer new insights into clade dynamics.")