New York (U.S. state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States and has an estimated population of 18,976,457 people (as of the year 2000.) Albany is the state's capital, although New York, New York, a.k.a. New York City, is the largest city in the state. Also, New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. The current governor of New York is David Paterson, a Democrat.
New York used to be the most populous state but has been superseded by California and Texas.
The state of New York has multiple modes of transportation. Both the local and state government build and maintain public roads. The federal government funds local and state roads as well as the interstate highway system. Most highways in New York do not charge toll. There are a number of toll bridges. The highway system operated by the state and local governments comprise more than 113,000 miles and over 16,000 bridges. 
Larger cities as well as many smaller cities are served by publicly owned airports. The New York (city) area is served by multiple airports that have airline service including John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport (owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey but located in the state of New Jersey), Long Island MacArthur Airport, Westchester County Airport, and Stewart International Airport. Scheduled helicopter service exists from some of the New York City area airports.
Some airlines operate or have operated hubs in New York. Empire Airlines operated a hub in Syracuse but the routes were largely abandoned when the airline was acquired by Piedmont Airlines which, itself, was acquired by US Airways.  Delta Airlines operates a hub at John F. Kennedy International Airport. 
Some parts of the state have extensive passenger railroad service. Amtrak, the federally owned company, has extensive service in the northeastern United States between Boston and Washington, D.C. Amtrak also operates New York-Albany-Buffalo service. There are also state owned passenger railroad systems such as Metro North, LIRR, PATH, and New Jersey Transit. New York state has 4,600 miles of railway, though some of it is not used for passenger use. 
Some of the larger cities have bus systems. New York (city) operated the first subway in the United States. Buffalo and Syracuse have light rail service within the city.
In 1825, the Erie Canal was opened allowing maritime travel between Lake Erie and the Hudson River, which leads to the Atlantic Ocean. Passenger ship and ferry travel exists in a limited form in New York. There is ferry service in New York (city) between Manhattan and Staten Island as well as between Long Island and the state of Connecticut. Some cruise ships dock in New York (city).
Early National Era 1783-1820
Erie Canal and Westward expansion
Civil War and Gilded Age, 1850-1900
Progressive Era, 1900-1928
Depression and War, 1929-1945
Postwar Boom, 1945-1972
Rustbelt Era, 1973-2007
Government and politics
The chief executive of New York state is the governor. The legislative branch of New York is bicameral, comprises of the State Senate and the State Assembly. The highest court of law in New York is the Court of Appeals.
Overall, the state leans Democratic, but the upstate portion is very conservative and safely Republican. The current governor of New York is David Paterson, a Democrat and the first African-American to serve the post. The two senators representing the state in Congress are Charles Schumer and Hillary Clinton, both Democrats.
Two prestigious Ivy League universities are situated in New York state. They are Cornell University and Columbia University. The state is also the home of many other respected private colleges and universities, such as New York University, Vassar College, and Hamilton College. A state-operated State University of New York system runs the public institutions of higher education in New York.
- In New York, the "Supreme Court of New York", despite its name, is one of the lowest state courts.