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This page contains standards and regulations related to Bibliography subpages.

A bibliography is a listing of the most valuable sources on a topic, including articles and books. Citizendium bibliographies, should be annotated, and include links to Web pages with copies of the articles and books, when available. The usefulness of a bibliography increases with the quality of the source, how recent it is, how available it is (online or through inter-library loan), and whether it guides users through the literature. Popular sources are usually not included unless they are influential in their own right, or better sources are lacking.

The bibliography should emphasize English-language sources as much as possible (including translations). It can include both primary and secondary sources, and should include short annotations (or sometimes abstracts) making clear the value of the source. It should indicate where items are available online, and if possible link to them (through JSTOR, Google Books, Questia, Ebsco, Project Muse, Gutenberg, Swetswise. etc.) Links to are welcome, such as graphics (e.g. the cover or illustrations), a table of contents, an excerpt, a search-the-book routine, or useful reviews. In every case enough information should be given so that a reference librarian can obtain the item through inter-library loans or online sources.

Outdated or discredited sources should be avoided--although if they are online and better sources are not online, we should include both. If a source is poor quality or heavily biased that should be noted in the annotation. Effort should be made to balance biased sources with sources on the other side(s).

Links to external websites, with original (otherwise unpublished) content, belong on links pages, not on bibliography pages.

Heading and format standards


What headings are appropriate depends on the field and the topic. In History, for example, bibliographies can be divided into "Primary Sources" and "Secondary Sources."

Citation schemes and listing notes

Authors should use the bibliographic citation scheme common to the discipline involved. (Ask what models are used by leading publishers and journals in the field.) The Chicago Manual of Style has comprehensive coverage of the alternatives.

For most books, it is optional but not necessary to include place of publication or publisher.

Books and articles can be combined in listing. Alphabetize by last name of the primary author (if no author, then use the title of the book, ignoring "The", "An", etc.)

Date of publication is tricky in the case of multiple editions and translations. (The book can have the annotation that there are multiple editions.) and are useful for dating. A major library online catalog is Melvyl from the University of California.

Major articles

Major articles will have long bibliographies that appear on the Bibliography subpage. A short selection called "Further reading" points the user to 5 to 20 most useful sources. Major topics have thousands of books and articles, and CZ does not try to be comprehensive but only includes the most useful resources.

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