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List of pseudosciences and pseudoscientific concepts (proposed article)

The following is a list of fields of endeavor and concepts that critics have characterized as being pseudoscientific or having pseudoscientific aspects. Some of these fields, or parts of them, may be the subject of scientific research and may not be wholly dismissed by the scientific community. Note that the pseudoscience label may be applied by disputants working in the same field to disparage a competing theory or form of argument used by a rival; by commentators from outside a field to disparage a whole field; merely to characterise the fact that a theory published in a popular book has no academic credibility whatsoever; or in reference to a theory now discarded. See the individual articles for more information.


Obsolete scientific theories

Pseudoscience should not be confused with obsolete scientific theories, such as luminiferous aether, phlogiston theory or the steady state theory of cosmology. The fact that a scientific theory has fallen into disfavour does not render it pseudoscience.

Persistently held obsolete or prescientific ideas

An obsolete or prescientific phenomenon can follow at least one of three paths leading to extremely different conclusions:

  1. It can be scientifically validated and accepted, becoming a part of scientifically accepted fact. In medicine, such phenomena often start as traditional medicine, or alternative medicine, and end up becoming evidence based medicine (EBM).
  2. It can be disproved and rejected after much experimentation shows negative results. Such phenomena are relegated to the history books as historical artifacts or obsolete scientific theories.
  3. It can, in spite of a lack of scientific basis — and even in spite of clear rejection — be preserved and believed, thus becoming a current pseudoscientific phenomenon. In medicine, such phenomena are often labeled quackery by the medical community and skeptics.

Such persistently held ideas fail to become totally obsolete, simply because — often a large numbers of "true believers" keep them alive.

Minority-opinion scientific theories

Pseudoscience should not be confused with unpopular or minority-opinion scientific theories. For example, some currently respected theories, such as the big bang theory, plate tectonics, or the idea that stones could fall from the sky (meteorites) were rejected simply because there was insufficient empirical evidence to support them at the time of their proposal; however, none of these theories were ever regarded as "pseudoscience"; rather they were scientific hypotheses which had insufficient evidenciary support for wide-spread acceptance.

As a practical matter, the topics of heated debate between scientists are rarely pseudoscience, even when the opinion is held by an extremely small minority of the scientific establishment. Notable exceptions are polywater and N-rays, although these might be more appropriately called scientific fraud, than pseudoscience. The label of pseudoscience is usually reserved for ideas advanced by non-scientists or those lacking in formal training or practical experience in matters of science. Philosophers have long considered it difficult if not impossible to develop a strict criteria to distinguish between science and pseudoscience (see demarcation problem).

As pathological science

A small number of pseudoscientific concepts are considered pathological science: a psychological process in which believers in a position, who may have originally conformed to the scientific method, unconsciously veer from that method and begin a pathological process of wishful data interpretation. The term ironic science was used by John Horgan in his book The End of Science to describe a "speculative, non-empirical mode" that mainstream science sometimes enters. Such theories are non-verifiable but not necessarily pathological (string theory for example), and are not listed here.

Because the term pseudoscience is almost universally regarded as a pejorative label (usually because it implies that the concept being criticized is not what it represents itself to be), those who adhere to such concepts almost always challenge them, often on either epistemic grounds (challenging the diagnosis), or by claiming that many mainstream fields of science can fail the same criteria.


Anthropology and Archaeology

  • Ancient astronaut theories, theories that ancient extraterrestrial contact was involved in some way with the origin or development of human culture.
  • Lemuria, and Atlantis, the theory that sunken continents in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans were once home to lost civilizations.
  • Mount Ararat, the theory that the Biblical Noah's Ark was real and ended its journey on the mountain known now as Mount Ararat. Theories about the survival and location of Noah' Ark often form the core of creationist archaeological programs.
  • African Olmecs theory, the theory that the Olmec civilization, which was one of the earliest high civilizations of the Americas was of African origin. This theory is a part of the Afrocentric way of thinking.


These topics are listed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as common cases of astronomical pseudoscience.[1]


See also Medicine below.
  • Biological transmutation, see Corentin Louis Kervran, the hypothesis that organisms can convert chemical elements, e.g. copper to iron.
  • Biophotons, a postulated communication mechanism of cells by the means of light, sometimes claimed to be the scientific substrate of Qi.
  • Creationism is the belief that the origin of everything in the universe is the result of a first cause, which was creation brought about by a creator deity. 'Creationism' generally refers to the version of this concept of natural history that is opposed to the theory of Evolution. See creation science.
  • Erototoxin, a neurological chemical postulated by Judith Reisman, PhD, an anti-pornography activist. It is triggered in the brain by exposure to pornography, and "mimics the 'high' from a street drug". She considers erototoxins addictive substances which represent the alleged link between pornography and such things as serial murder, rape, child molestation, and erectile dysfunction.
  • Intelligent Design scenarios hold that life and living things show signs of having been designed. ID's primary argument is that life is too complex to have simply "happened by random chance" or evolved via millions of years. (Intelligent Design is sometimes considered to be a form of Creationism, though many who advocate ID suggest it may be the other way around.)[5]
  • Irreducible complexity is the claim that some systems are so complex that they cannot have evolved from simpler systems. It is used by proponents of intelligent design to argue that evolution by natural selection alone is incomplete or flawed, and that some additional mechanism (an "Intelligent Designer") is required to explain the origins of life.
  • Japanese blood type theory of personality, a popular belief in Japan that a person's ABO blood type is predictive of their personality, character, and compatibility with others.
  • Lysenkoism is a theory that rejects agricultural heredity.
  • Odic force is a theory that all life is permeated and bound together by a vital property.
  • Plant perception (paranormal) is a theory that plants have cognitive abilities, can feel emotions, respond to stimuli, and communicate with other lifeforms. This parascience should not be confused with Plant perception (physiology) which is the study of normal biologic mechanisms of plant perception and response to stimuli.
  • Specified complexity is a concept which considers that modern information science can only deal with the probabilities of genetic evolution if it considers the context of the information contained within a gene.
  • Vitalism, theories claiming that understanding of the living matter should be radically different from that of non-living matter, e.g. biodynamic agriculture.
  • Morphogenetic fields supposedly cause things (particularly, but not exclusively, living organisms) to grow or behave in patterns laid down by previous similar things.
  • Quantum evolution (alternative), the hypothesis that genetic mutation is directed through quantum effects.
  • Vibration theory of smell, the hypothesis that the sensation of smell arises from the nose's sensing of the rate of electron tunneling into the scent molecule.


  • Astrology refers to any of several systems of understanding, interpreting and organizing knowledge about reality and human existence, based on the relative positions and movement of various real and construed celestial bodies.
  • Channeling is a supposed special ability of a person to receive information from a supernatural source.[6]
  • Cartomancy is a form of fortune telling -- divination -- using a deck of cards.
  • Chiromancy evaluates a person's character or future life by "reading" the palm of that person's hand.
  • Dowsing is a divination method which empowers the dowser to find water, metals and hidden objects by carrying a form of stick (dowsing rod) and watching its motion.
  • Electronic voice phenomenon uses sound recording devices to playback messages ostensibly from ghosts or extraterrestrials.
  • Fortune telling is the practice of predicting the future, usually of an individual, through mystical or supernatural means.
  • Geomancy is a method of divination based on the interpretation of markings on the ground or the pattern of scattered dirt or pebbles. It also refers to a set of practices and theories based on the identification or manipulation of energies tied to the earth (see Sacred Geometry), including dowsing, feng shui, and ley lines / dragon lines.
  • Instrumental transcommunication also known as "ITC" attempts to use electronic technology such as video feedback, computer monitors, TV sets, and radios to communicate with the dead.
  • Numerology is an arcane study of the purported mystical relationship between numbers and the character or action of physical objects and living things.
  • Ornithomancy is a form of divination using the flight of birds to predict future events.
  • Papyromancy is a form of divination through the folding of paper.
  • Pyramid power theory states that the shape of the pyramid has healing power and spiritual energy.
  • Remote viewing is a form of clairvoyance by which a viewer is said to be able to perceive objects or events separated from the viewer in space or time.
  • Scrying is the name given to the ancient technique of gazing into an object for the purpose of clairvoyance.
  • Telepathy is the claimed ability for humans to communicate information from one mind to another without the assistance of outside tools such as speech or body language.[7]
  • Levitation is the act of rising up from the ground without any physical aids, usually by the power of thought.


  • Catastrophism claims that Earth has been affected by sudden, short-lived, violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope. Immanuel Velikovsky's theories fall under this category. (An exception, one specific type of catastrophism that is no longer significantly disputed, is the theory that the Earth has occasionally experienced collisions with astronomical objects such as asteroids and comets large enough to temporarily affect global climate and cause extinction events, such as the K-T event.)
  • Flat Earthism is the idea that Earth is flat, not a spheroid, as has been observed since the time of the Greeks.
  • Flood geology is the creationist form of geology that advocates most of the geologic features on Earth are explainable by a global flood.
  • Hollow Earthism theory claims that the Earth is hollow, and its inside is possibly populated by a race of superbeings, humans or aliens, and possibly dinosaurs.
  • Ley lines are alignments of a number of places of geographical interest, such as ancient megaliths.
  • Normally undetectable Monoatomic Elements make up 5% of the earth's crust.
  • Growing Earth a disputed concept over the expansion/nonexpansion of the Earth and the universe.


  • Acupuncture, in the traditional sense, is the practice of inserting very thin needles in particular points on the body to redirect qi thereby improving health and well-being. While acupuncture has documented therapeutic effects, mainstream medical science attributes the mechanism for these effects to sources other than qi. Traditional Chinese medicine's acupuncture theory predates use of the scientific method, and has received various criticisms based on scientific thinking. There is no physically verifiable anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians.[8][9]
  • AIDS reappraisal movement, a group of activists who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).[10]
  • Applied kinesiology claims to be a method of diagnosing malfunctioning organs and what the effect of substances on the body is or would be by testing whether certain muscles are weakened or not. It is not the same as scientific Kinesiology.
  • The Bates Method of vision improvement, based on claims of accommodation and myopia pathogenesis which are not a part of mainstream ophthalmology or biology.
  • Biorhythm theory claims that there are measurable patterns of alterations in physiology, emotions, and intellect that can be charted over the course of days or weeks.
  • Cellular memory is the unproven hypothesis that people can inherit mental traits, such as memory, sexual orientation, or taste in music from organ or tissue transplants.
  • Chiropractic Critics argue certain aspects of chiropractic schools of thought is not science based.[11][12][13][14][15][16]
  • Crystal healing theory states that crystals have alleged healing and mystical paranormal powers.
  • Dianetics is a therapy that evolved into the Church of Scientology.
  • Demon possession was a theory for explaining some forms of mental illnesses; the theory was once widely held and was believed by many to have had Biblical support; most modern mental health professionals, today, have rejected this theory.
  • Dermo-optical perception - the claimed ability to "see" through one's fingertips.
  • The Duesberg hypothesis claims that recreational and pharmaceutical drug use, rather than HIV, is the primary cause for the progress of the disease AIDS. See also AIDS reappraisal.
  • Grapefruit seed extract Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), also known as citrus seed extract, as a natural antimicrobial is scientifically unverified.[17][18][19][20][21]
  • Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine involving the use of highly diluted substances with similar (i. e. homeo-) characteristics to the condition being treated. In many cases, not a single molecule of the substance remains in the diluted solution.[22]
  • Iridology is the practice of examining the iris to evaluate and recommend treatments for specific health problems. (See also eyology and sclerology.)[23][24]
  • Magnet therapy is an alternative medicine based on the concept that certain medical disorders (particularly pain or muscle spasms) can be effectively treated by exposure to magnetic fields.
  • Prayer healing is the belief that praying for someone to get well from an illness or injury will cause them to get well, even if the object of the prayer is unaware of the prayer.
  • Psychic surgery is a type of apparent surgery performed by the healer with bare hands or unorthodox instruments.
  • Reflexology claims that by massaging specific parts of the foot, one can improve the health of various other parts of the body.
  • Reiki is the use of 'healing hands' to allow a patient to experience "Universal Lifeforce Energy" to create physical, mental, and emotional well-being.
  • Reparative therapy is a method aimed at eliminating same-sex sexual desires.[25]
  • The opposition of Scientologists to psychiatry
  • Thought Field Therapy claims that it can heal of a variety of mental and physical ailments through specialized "tapping" with the fingers at meridian points on the upper body and hands.
  • Trepanation is the act of drilling a hole in one's head to release built-up pressure and move the person to a higher plane of consciousness. (Not to be confused with more generic medical procedure of trepanation used in neurosurgery to access the cerebrum.)

Planetary science


  • Alchemy, the attempt to turn various metals, such as lead, into gold. This view still has adherents. (Some maintain that this is a mistaken view of alchemy, which often had more sophisticated goals. See the article for details.)
  • Autodynamics is a theory proposed as a replacement for special relativity, which is claimed to have been based on erroneous assumptions.
  • Creationist cosmologies offered by Young Earth Creationists as alternative ideas about cosmology to allow for a universe that is only thousands of years old.
  • Nikola Tesla's unpublished (and "lost") Dynamic theory of gravity.
  • ECE theory, an alleged unified field theory,
  • Emitter theory, another now-obsolete theory of light propagation.
  • Heim Theory (see also Burkhard Heim), a Theory of everything with small, mostly German and Austrian following.
  • Hydrino theory proposes the hydrino, or miniature hydrogen atom with the electron pushed closer than usual to the nucleus.
  • Kirlian photography is high-voltage contact print photography. Its existence is not disputed, but the paranormal interpretations of some images thus produced are.
  • Law of Attraction
  • Modern geocentrism, citing uniform gamma ray bursts distribution as evidence that we are at the center of the universe, and other ideas of this type.
  • Non-standard cosmologies, a summary of the alternatives to the Big Bang offered by various groups who claim varying levels of scientific legitimacy.
  • N-ray, an alleged new form of radiation first "observed" by René-Prosper Blondlot, and soon debunked by Robert W. Wood and others.
  • Wilhelm Reich's Orgone energy is an unproven form of energy, both cosmic and biological.
  • Perpetual motion machines are a class of hypothetical machines in which the inputs of energy (including the energy equivalent of any fuel) are less than the outputs, a result that would violate the principle of conservation of energy. These should not be confused with energy processes that use various forms of latent energy (such as nuclear fission) and may to an untrained eye appear to be energy from "nowhere".
  • Polywater is a supposed polymerized form of water.
  • Polarizable vacuum is a supposed alternative to general relativity introduced by Harold Puthoff, which claims that gravitation is merely an electromagnetic phenomenon.
  • Process physics by Reginald Cahill. "Process physics comes together with physics, automata theory, and cognitive science into a holistic area known as generative sciences, towards the unification of all systematic knowledge about the universe and the world."
  • Red mercury, code name for a supposed energetic substance that could allow creation of hydrogen bomb without preceding fission explosion, promulgated by Samuel Cohen, sometimes claimed to be a ballotechnic substance.
  • Riemannian Cosmology, proposed by Igor Bogdanoff, regarded as illucid or cranky by most mainstream physicists, but defended by a vocal minority.
  • Scalar field theory is a set of theories in a model which posits that there is a basic mechanism that produces the electric field and the magnetic field and which normal electromagnetic theory does not acknowledge or account for. Note that there is a perfectly acceptable usage of the term "scalar field" within classical or quantum field theory which should not be confused with the pseudo-scientific usage.
  • Synchronicity is the claim by Carl Jung that some mysterious alignment of forces in the universe create apparent coincidence which according to Jung are imbued with profound meaning. In a strange aberration, late in his life (age 55), the prince of skeptics, Wolfgang Pauli, coauthored a book on this topic with Jung.
  • Time Cube says that time is cubic. The claims are those of Gene Ray, and first appeared on a website of the same name in August 1997. The claims relating to physics and mathematics attempt to redefine basic scientific principles and terminology, and rely on the circular logic of Time Cube instead of established scientific conventions. The lack of academic interest in the claims is always attributed to conspiracies, and/or that educated people are evil/stupid.
  • Yilmaz theory of gravitation, regarded as illucid or cranky by mainstream physicists.


  • Gambler's Fallacy, the claim that truly random events which have happened less often than the frequency expected by random chance in the past are more likely than random chance to happen in the future.
  • Luck, the claim, common in fiction and folk wisdom, that random events not causally linked to a person or ritual happen in a way that systemically favors or disfavors the interests of that person, or someone who has carried out a ritual. One important subtype of luck-belief is a popular version of the concept of karma which asserts that good things are more likely to happen in the future to people who have been good, and that bad things are more likely to happen in the future to people have been bad, as a result of a cosmic principle of balance.


  • Characterology method of character reading developed in the 1920's.
  • Dunstan Baby Language is a claim about infantile speech patterns and language acquisition in humans.
  • Couéism, or the Coué Method, method of healing and self-improvement through autosuggestion.
  • Engrams, a phenomenon claimed by Dianetics (see Scientology), are claimed to be mental patterns connected through activation at the same time.
  • Enneagram is a classification of personality characteristics claimed to give insight into intra- and interpersonal relationships.
  • Graphology is the study of handwriting and its connection to behavior, personal information and other human traits.
  • Indigo children refers to a New Age concept used to classify children with certain "unusual" psychological characteristics or abilities.
  • The Mozart Effect is the belief that children will have greater brain development when they listen to Mozart.[26]
  • Neuro-linguistic programming is a communication model based on the language and behavioral patterns of exceptional psychotherapists.
  • Parapsychology is the study of purported paranormal mental phenomena.[27]
  • Pathognomy is the study of passions and emotions.
  • Phrenology claims to be able to determine personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head.
  • Photoreading is "mentally photographing" printed pages.
  • Physiognomy is based upon the belief that the study and judgement of a person's outer appearance, primarily the face, reflects the contents of their personality.
  • Polygraph or lie detector, was found in a negative report by the National academy of Science to have a very overstated accuracy.
  • Recovered memory is the act of discovering repressed memories and therapy to achieve such ends.
  • Sentience Quotient is a concept invented by Robert A. Freitas Jr. The theory defines sentience according to a relationship between information processing rate and brain mass, yet there is no evidence that such a relationship is in any way related to the measure of sentience.


  • Eugenics, a term variously defined but generally meaning attempts to use social control to improve the human gene pool, is often labeled as a pseudoscience when referring to its status in the first half of the twentieth century as practiced in the United States, Sweden, and under Nazi Germany, which rested on methodologically problematic assumptions and very sloppy data. Depending on the definition of the term, though, it is not necessarily pseudoscience.[28]
  • Marxism- is a theory that all people are equal, and that there is a secret order based on the deep rooted psycology of the upper class to oppress those beneath them.
  • Social Darwinism is a set of theories which proponents argue govern the natural sociological relations of humanity; these theories are putatively an application of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection to society as a whole. They generally claim that current social structure is governed by purely biological considerations (i.e. the poor are poor and the rich are rich because they are biologically inclined to fall into those categories).[29]


  • Cryptozoology is the study of rumored or mythological animals that are presumed by many to exist, but for which proof does not yet exist.
  • Pseudoarchaeology refers to the ideologically-driven, usually sensational interpretation of the past outside of a critical, scientific framework. Pseudoarchaeology also includes forms of protosciences.
  • Scientology, often categorized as a UFO religion, makes complicated claims of ancient alien civilizations and promises supernatural abilities.
  • Ufology is the term describing the study of the UFO (unidentified flying object) phenomena, including claims that some UFOs are extraterrestrial vehicles manned by aliens.
  • Vril - A worldview involving Nazi mysticism, and an interpretation of Ufology relating to a Hollow earth and subterranean Nazi-friendly super beings, rather than "space" extraterrestrial.


  • Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science by its founder Rudolf Steiner, is an attempt to investigate and describe spiritual phenomena with the same precision and clarity with which natural science investigates and describes the physical world.
  • Bible codes research states that the future can be predicted by examining Hebrew letters arranged in blocks and making various skips (every 4th letter or every 6th letter, etc). Critics say that similar "codes" can be found in any book of similar length (for example: War and Peace).
  • Biblical scientific foreknowledge, which asserts that the Bible makes predictions about science.
  • Facilitated communication is viewed as an alternative means of expression for people who cannot speak, or whose speech is highly limited (e.g. echoed, limited to one or a few word utterances), and who cannot point reliably. Critics charge that actual communication is only done by the facilitator.[30]
  • Innate intelligence are beliefs related to the assumption that there are additional forces and energies inherent to life that have been ignored by modern biology and medical science.[31]
  • Ghost hunting aka Paranormal investigation, collecting and measuring evidence of paranormal activity using a variety of electronic gadgets, such as EMF Meters, digital thermometers, infrared and night vision cameras, handheld video cameras, digital audio recorders, and computers.
  • Laws of Form, to the extent that it is claimed to be anything more than an unorthodox presentation of propositional logic.
  • Materialization creation of matter from nowhere and out of nothing by somebody's will power or concentration.
  • New Chronology consists of various competing theories which claim that currently accepted chronology presents a history that lasts either much longer or much shorter than it should (e.g., that Jesus was born around 1000 years ago).
  • Novelty Theory An eschatology-like theory claimed by its creator, ethnobotanist Terence McKenna, to have a firm mathematical basis (McKenna is not a mathematician), although its rationale and sources are primarily numerological, for example the Mayan Calendar and a list of numbers from the I Ching. Its main feature is a plotted waveform McKenna calls "Timewave Zero," which he claims shows that "something" significant will happen in the year 2012, which corresponds to an abbreviated form of the date which marks the end of the Mayan Calendar.
  • Welteislehre is the theory developed by Hanns Hörbiger in the early 20th century. It states that the universe is based on a constant struggle between ice and fire.


  1. Fraknoi, Andrew. "ASP: Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List." Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2003. Retrieved 3 Feb. 2007. Skeptic's Resource List
  2. Study: Critical Thinking: Pseudoscience, Astrology 01/02 Article
  3. Paul R. Thagard - Why Astrology Is A Pseudoscience Article
  4. ASP: Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List: Crop Circles Article
  5. Trojan Horse or Legitimate Science: Deconstructing the Debate over Intelligent Design by David Mu. Harvard Science Review, Volume 19, Issue 1, Fall 2005. Article
  6. Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding: Science Fiction and Pseudoscience Article
  7. Public Knowledge About S&T Article
  8. Mann F. Reinventing Acupuncture: A New Concept of Ancient Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann, London, 1996,14.
  9. Acupuncture. National Institutes of Health: Consensus Development Conference Statement, November 3-5, 1997. Retrieved Feb. 3 2007. Abstract
  10. Galea P, Chermann JC. (1998). "HIV as the cause of AIDS and associated diseases". Genetica 104 (2): 133-142. PMID 10220906.
  11. Chiropractic: Science and Antiscience and Pseudoscience Side by Side. Joseph C. Keating, Jr, PhD. Skeptical Inquirer, July-August, 1997 Article
  12. Faulty Logic & Non-skeptical Arguments in Chiropractic. Joseph C. Keating, Jr, PhD. Article PDF
  13. Edzard Ernst: Serious pseudoscience - Guardian Unlimited Article
  14. Jarvis, William T. Chirobase: Skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and current practices, Chirobase, April 28, 2000.
  15. Novella, Steven. Chiropractic: Flagship of the Alternative Medicine Fleet, Part One, New England Skeptical Society, May 1, 1997.
  16. Novella, Steven. Chiropractic: Flagship of the Alternative Medicine Fleet, Part Two, New England Skeptical Society, August 1, 1997.
  17. Ganzera M, Aberham A, Stuppner H. Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract. Institute of Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 31;54(11):3768-72. Abstract
  18. Takeoka, G., Dao, L., Wong, R.Y., Lundin, R., Mahoney N. Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 49(7):3316–20. Abstract
  19. von Woedtke, T., Schlüter, B., Pflegel, P., Lindequist, U.; Jülich, W.-D. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained. Pharmazie 1999 54:452–456. Abstract
  20. Sakamoto, S., Sato, K., Maitani, T., Yamada, T. Analysis of components in natural food additive “grapefruit seed extract” by HPLC and LC/MS. Bull. Natl. Inst. Health Sci. 1996, 114:38–42. Abstract
  21. Takeoka, G.R., Dao, L.T., Wong, R.Y., Harden L.A. Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 53(19):7630–6. Abstract
  22. Naturopathy, Pseudoscience, and Medicine: Myths and Fallacies vs Truth Article
  23. Worrall RS. Pseudoscience--a critical look at iridology. J Am Optom Assoc. 1984 Oct;55(10):735-9. PMID 6491119
  24. Bartholomew RE, Likely M. Subsidising Australian pseudoscience: is iridology complementary medicine or witch doctoring? Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Feb;22(1):163-4. PMID 9599872
  25. The pseudoscience of sexual orientation change therapy -- Forstein 328 (7445): E287 -- BMJ Article
  26. Skeptic's Dictionary - The Mozart Effect Article
  27. Kurtz, Paul (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books, 502ff. ISBN 0-087975-300-5. 
  28. Diane Paul, Controlling human heredity: 1865 to the present (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1995), 18.
  29. Wilner E. (2006). "Darwin's artificial selection as an experiment". Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 37 (1): 26-40. PMID 16473266.
  30. Facilitated communication (FC), The Skeptics Dictionary. Article
  31. Chiropractic. A theoretical healing process based on the belief that health problems are caused by misalignment of vertebrae. John Jackson 2004. Article

See also

Further reading

External links

This draft uses content that originally appeared on Wikipedia.

[[Category:Lists of controversial books|Alternative, speculative, and disputed theories]] [[Category:Physics lists|Alternative, speculative, and disputed theories]] [[Category:Protoscience]] [[Category:Pseudoscience]] [[Category:Fringe physics]] [[Category:Fringe subjects without critical scientific evaluation]]