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- Abdullah Azzam : A Salafist legal scholar and jihadist, who formed the Services Office supporting the Afghanistan War (1978-92) with Osama bin Laden, one of the organizations that formed al-Qaeda
- Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi : A Salafist theologian with much influence on Jihad, currently in Jordan; some affiliation with al-Qaeda but not necessarily in full agreement with their approach
- Afghanistan : A Islamic republic in Central Asia, with an unstable but elected government; borders China, Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
- Extrajudicial detention, Egypt : General policies of modern Egypt for extrajudicial detention either by the Egyptian authorities directly, or where Egypt receives prisoners from third countries
- Extrajudicial detention : The policy and practice of holding prisoners captive without judicial authority to do so, or without a recognized authority under international law, such capture of prisoners of war
- Iran : Country in the Middle East.
- Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan : A Central Asian jihadist movement, centered on the Ferghana Valley, where the borders of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzistan, and Tajikistan meet; affiliated with the Taliban and al-Qaeda and may be based in Afghanistan
- Islam : Religion founded by Muhammad whose sacred book is the Qur'an (Koran).
- Jihad : Literally meaning "struggle", a Muslim concept that can refer to an inward-directed personal process to submit to God's will, or to an external combat with the enemies of Islam
- Law : Body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by a controlling authority.
- Muslim Brotherhood : An Islamic political group, formed in Egypt and increasingly part of the political system there, which has worldwide branches; it may be moving from a Salafist ideology to a more mulilateral one
- Muslim : An adherent of the religion, Islam, with no implicit assuptions about government or politics
- Qur'an : The sacred book of Islam, consisting of revelations to Muhammad.
- Salafism : A strict branch of Sunni Islam, dedicated to the restoration of the Caliphate, often by means of armed jihad
- Shirk : An Arabic word literally meaning polytheism, but interpreted by some Salafist clerics, such as Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, to include allegiance to any government, even ostensibly Islamist, which does not follow strict Sharia law.
- Taliban in Pakistan : Activities of the Taliban movement to take political control of parts of Pakistan, rather than using Pakistan as a sanctuary to operate in Afghanistan
- Tehrik-e-Nifaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammed : A Pakistani Islamist group, technically banned as terrorists but with which the government negotiates in Swat Valley; at least sympathetic to the Taliban in Pakistan and strongly supportive of the imposition of sharia but with apparently only local authority
- The Báb : (October 20, 1819 – July 9,1850) The founder and prophet of The Bábí Faith or Babism.
- Wahhabism : A socially conservative branch of Sunni Islam, strongest in the House of Saud, which rules Saudi Arabia