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- Africa : Continent stretching over the equator, hosting deserts, tropical jungles and savannah as well as over fifty nations; population about 900,000,000.
- Peace operations : Operations other than all-out war, conducted by neutral parties, to ensure the continuance of a peace, or, in the face of resistance, to enforce it.
- Darfur Conflict : A low-technology war, with massive casualties and refugees, in the Darfur area of western Sudan, representing a cultural and economic conflict between traditional pastoralists and nomads, the nomads being supported by the power elite of north Sudan; all parties involved are Muslim, but of African and Arab ethnicity
- Highly Indebted Poor Countries : Countries that are internationally recognized to have a debt load that cannot be cleared with their own resources, where debt service is interfering with human development, and there is a plan for poverty elimination and good financial management
- Millennium Challenge Act : United States enabling legislation for carrying out activities related to the UN Millennium Development Goals
- Economic Community of West African States : An active sub-continental organization for economic development and conflict resolution
- Organization of the Islamic Conference : Add brief definition or description
- Mali : Landlocked republic in Africa, bounded north-west by Mauritania, north-east by Algeria, west by Senegal, east by Niger, and south by Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, and Guinea.
- France : Western European republic (population c. 64.1 million; capital Paris) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra and Spain; founding member of the European Union. Colonial power in Southeast Asia until 1954.
- French language : A Romance language spoken in northwestern Europe (mainly in France, Belgium, Switzerland), in Canada and in many other countries.
- Alvise Cadamosto : Add brief definition or description
- U.S. intelligence and global health : Analysis by the United States intelligence community, in conjunction with more general health organizations, relating to issues of human survival from health-related issues
- U.S. intelligence activities in Chad : Activities of the United States intelligence community in Chad, as well as diplomatic and military activities that indirectly produce intelligence
- Failed state : A nation or quasi-nation unable to deliver minimal governance services to its citizens; there may not even be a functioning government
- UN Human Rights Council : A multinational body, supported by but separate from the office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, created by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006
- Steve Driehaus : A member of the United States House of Representatives (Democrat) representing the 1st Congressional District of Ohio.