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- See also changes related to Orthography, or pages that link to Orthography or to this page or whose text .
- Linguistics : The scientific study of language.
- Written language : The communication and representation of a language by means of a writing system.
- Writing system : A set of signs used to represent a language, such as an alphabet, or a set of rules used to write a language, such as conventions of spelling and punctuation.
- Writing : The process of recording thoughts or speech in a visually or haptically retrievable manner.
- Alphabet : Writing system in which symbols - single or multiple letters, such as <a> or <ch> - represent phonemes (significant 'sounds') of a language.
- : Unit of written language that may represent one or more phonemes, syllables, morphemes or words; e.g. in English <b> is a grapheme usually representing /b/, and are two graphemes representing in some cases the single phoneme /θ/, in others the single phoneme /ð/.
- Spoken language : An example of language produced using some of the articulatory organs, e.g. the mouth, vocal folds or lungs, or intended for production by these organs; alternatively, the entire act of communicating verbally - what people mean or intend, the words they use, their accent, intonation and so on.
- Chinese characters : (simplified Chinese 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字) are symbols used to write varieties of Chinese and - in modified form - other languages; world's oldest writing system in continuous use.
- Kanji : (漢字) Chinese-derived characters used to write some elements of the Japanese language.