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- Nuclear power plant : A power plant, often electric, that uses the energy derived from controlled (non-explosive) nuclear reactions to generate electricity. Conventionally, nuclear power plants used the heat energy derived from nuclear fission to generate steam, which in turn generates electric power.
- Nuclear fission : A reaction by which a nucleus of a suitable isotope of an element with a high atomic number splits into two nuclei of lower atomic numbers and one or more neutrons and a relatively large release of energy per atom.
- : A nuclear reactor that uses regular water, called light water because its hydrogen nuclei are H-1, as opposed to heavy water whose hydrogen nuclei are H-2.
- Boiling Water Reactor : (BWR) A type of nuclear power reactor in which the heat of the reactor is applied directly to the water that becomes steam and spins the turbine; the water, and eventually the turbine, becomes radioactive
- Pressurized Water Reactor : A nuclear power reactor in which the heat of fission affects water in a primary loop, which is piped to a heat exchanger that generates steam in a secondary loop that drives the turbine; water in the primary but not the secondary loop is radioactive
- : A nuclear reactor that uses heavy water which has hydrogen nuclei that are H-2, as opposed to regular water, called light water because its hydrogen nuclei are H-1.
- CANDU : A pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), initially developed in the late 1950's in Canada.
- Very High Temperature Reactor : A medium-sized, next-generation nuclear reactor primarily intended to provide heat for industrial processes, with electricity generation a secondary role; uranium-fueled, graphite-moderated and helium-cooled
- Nuclear power : The energy produced from controlled (non-explosive) nuclear reactions. Commercial nuclear power plants currently use the heat energy derived from nuclear fission reactions to generate steam, which in turn is used to generate electricity or other energy.
- Neutron : An elementary particle of neutral charge, normally found in the nucleus of chemical elements, but having significant effects when in free flight; the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element defines its identity as an isotope
- Reactor moderator : A substance, which absorbs neutrons, and is used to control the rate of fission in a nuclear reactor
- Moderator (nuclear) : Materials, in nuclear engineering, that reduce the flow of particles or electromagnetic radiation
- Uranium : A silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table that has the symbol U and atomic number 92.
- Plutonium : Man-made radioactive element (Z = 94); its 239 isotope is fissionable and used in nuclear weapons; the 240 isotope is used in some nuclear power reactors
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- Very_high_temperature_reactor : A nuclear reactor using helium gas as a coolant, that might provide process heat for production of zero-carbon hydrogen from water.
- Natrium reactor : A fast reactor using molten sodium as the coolant. Development funded by Bill Gates. Like the MCSFR, capable of burning spent nuclear fuel. 
- NuScale small modular reactor : A smaller version of a standard Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR).
- Molten chloride salt fast reactor : Elysium's reactor with no moderator, capable of burning spent nuclear fuel and bomb cores.
- ThorCon nuclear reactor : A molten salt reactor (MSR) using a mix of uranium and thorium in a fluoride salt with a graphite moderator.