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- See also changes related to Heterosis, or pages that link to Heterosis or to this page or whose text .
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- Agriculture : The process of producing food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.
- Allele : A specific sequence of a gene, and one of a pair in a diploid cell (one per chromosome).
- Classical plant breeding : The application of genetic principles to improve cultivated plants.
- Gene : The functional unit of heredity.
- Horizontal gene transfer in plants : Any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to another cell that is not its cellular offspring, as distinct from vertical gene transfer where genes are inherited from parents or ancestors in a lineage of cellular organisms.
- Maize : Cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread throughout the world, and one of the most widely grown crops in the Americas.
- Plant breeding : The purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes, such as food production, forestry, and horticulture.
- Transgenic plant : Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species.
- Wheat : Grass crop grown worldwide and used in making flour and fermentation for alcohol production.