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- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Life : Living systems, of which biologists seek the commonalities distinguishing them from non-living systems.
- Cell (biology) : The basic unit of life, consisting of biochemical networks enclosed by a membrane.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Exon : Add brief definition or description
- Intron : Non-coding sequence of nucleic acid that is between the expressed sequences (exons) in a gene.
- Promotor : Add brief definition or description
- Transposon : Blocks of conserved DNA that can occasionally move to different positions within the chromosomes of a cell.
- Transposons as a genetic tool : Semi-parasitic DNA sequences which can replicate and spread through the host's genome.
- Gene duplication : The incorporation of the same gene into different parts of the genome of an organism.
- Gene flow : The movement of genetic alleles from one population to another. If there is a low gene flow between two populations they may become distinct species.
- Genetic engineering : The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process.
- Genotype : Genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms, based on a combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
- Transgenic plant : Plants that have been genetically modified by inserting genes directly into a single plant cell, from a different species.
- Nucleic acid : A class of macromolecules important in conveying genetic information.
- Chromosome : A compact body of ribonucleic acid wrapped around proteins that is the unit in which genetic material is distributed during cell division.
- Chromosome band : A striped pattern observed on stained chromosomes.
- Endosymbiotic theory : Theory on the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), which are organelles of eukaryotic cells.
- Epigenetics : Modifications in a gene's activity, expression, and/or regulation that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence. It is possible for such differences to be inherited from one generation to the next.
- Evolution : Add brief definition or description
- Hemochromatosis : Add brief definition or description
- Heterosis : Add brief definition or description
- Prokaryote phylogeny and evolution : Add brief definition or description
- Protein : Add brief definition or description
- Single-nucleotide polymorphism : Add brief definition or description
- Targeted gene replacement : Add brief definition or description