9K31 Strela-1

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The Soviet-designed 9K31 Strela-1, with the NATO reporting name SA-9 GASKIN, is a mobile, short-range surface-to-air missile. No longer a first-line Russian weapon, it is deployed in self-contained systems transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) on the BRDM armored reconnaissance vehicle chassis, with four missiles replacing the BRDM gun turret.[1] The later SA-13 GOPHER system replaced the GASKIN, although the GOPHER launchers can fire the Strela-1 missile as well as their more advanced missile.

Launcher and electronics

One of the TELs in each battery has a set of FLAT BOX A passive radar detection antennas and receiver, but the individual missiles rely on their own infrared guidance.

Missile and firing doctrine

Strela missiles are heat-seeking, able to engage targets as low as 150 feet and as high as 16,000 feet, The range is between 0.5 and 5 miles. The first version had an uncooled infrared seeker, upgraded to a cooled version.

In combat, to achieve acceptable kill probabilities, the missiles are fired in pairs, about 2 seconds apart. The 4-missile launcher can be reloaded in approximately 5 minutes.


  1. Globalsecurity.org, SA-9 GASKIN/9K31 Strela-1